According to the Mental Health Foundation, "Good sleep is a fundamental building block for young people’s mental and physical health. But our research has shown that many young people are struggling with their sleep and that it is having a negative effect on their mental health. We know that significant numbers of teenagers are not getting the sleep they need in a typical week and are too tired to do schoolwork or study or concentrate in class.”
Sleep is defined as a regular period in every 24 hours when we are both unconscious and unaware of our surroundings. There are two main types of sleep:
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. It comes and goes throughout the night, and makes up about one-fifth of our sleep time. During REM sleep, our brain is very active, our muscles are very relaxed, our eyes move quickly from side to side and we dream.
Non-REM sleep. The brain is quiet, but the body may move around. Hormones are released into the bloodstream and our body repairs itself after the wear and tear of the day. There are 4 stages of non-REM sleep:
We move between REM and non-REM sleep about five times throughout the night, dreaming more as we get toward the morning.
During a normal night, we will also have short periods of waking. These last 1 or 2 minutes and happen every 2 hours or so. We aren't usually aware of them. We are more likely to remember them if we feel anxious or there is something else going on - noises outside, our partner snoring etc.
So how much sleep do we need? The amount of sleep we require every day depends on our age: On average, babies sleep for about 17 hours each day. Older children only need 9 or 10 hours a night. Most adults need around 7-8 hours sleep each night. Older people need the same amount of sleep, but will often only have one period of deep sleep during the night, usually in the first 3 or 4 hours, after which they wake more easily. We also tend to dream less as we get older. There are also differences between people of the same age. Most of us need 7-8 hours a night, but some (a few) people can get by with only 3 hours a night.
What happens when we don’t get enough sleep? The occasional night without sleep will make you feel tired the next day, but it won't harm your physical or mental health.
However, after several sleepless nights, you will start to find that: You are tired all the time. You drop off during the day. You have difficulty concentrating. You find it hard to make decisions. You begin to feel depressed.
Lack of sleep can also be very dangerous if you are driving or operating heavy machinery. Other problems can arise from lack of sleep and make us more vulnerable to conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity.
How to get a good nights sleep. To achieve a good night’s sleep, there are some simple measures that you can take to help:
Stress and sleep. A common cause of insomnia and restless sleep is stress. Instead of worrying about things while you’re in bed trying to get to sleep, try writing a list of your concerns and any ideas you have to solve them then forget about them until the morning. It may be that you have an exam the next day you need to study for or a presentation at work you need to prepare for, but try not to do it in bed. Keep your work and rest separated in different rooms and this way you can create a ‘sleep sanctuary’, which will encourage you to relax and lead to a restful and revitalising sleep.
And remember...If it takes you longer than 20 or 30 minutes to get to sleep, don’t lie in bed becoming anxious about it. Instead get up and go to another room for a short period of time and read or watch television and then try again.
Lack of sleep and obesity. Studies show that sleep deprivation may be linked to obesity by compromising the body’s sensitivity to insulin (a hormone that affects metabolism, muscle tone, storage and release of fat), increasing ghrelin (a growth hormone that affects appetite and energy level) and decreasing leptin (a protein hormone regulating appetite and metabolism). Researchers found that people between the ages of 32-49 years old, who slept less than seven hours a night, had a higher BMI (body mass index) and were more likely to be obese than those who had a regular seven or eight hours of sleep a night. Also, sleep deprivation can lead to depression which in turn can cause overeating.
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